Countries province
Living History
Fragments of history of the province
XI Century XII Century XIII Century XIV Century
XI Century
The days of pomp of the castle of Vivinaia – At the beginning of thousand, the small castle of Vivinaia (which today no longer exists after its destruction in 1331)  set at few hundred meters from what today is known as the suburb of Montecarlo,  passed through a period of glory and pomp thanks to the sumptuous buildings built by the once known Marquises of the "Brand Tuscany. The emperor Enrico II, Duke of Baviera and King of Germany resided for a brief period  in 1022 in Marquis Ranieri's building who had come down to Italy in aid of Pope Benedict VIII who had  been forced  to abandon his legitimate pontifical throne by an usurper, a certain Gregorio (For all of his good deeds carried out in favour of the church, in 1125, Henry II had him enrolled in the catalogue of saints, by Pope Eugenio III and today the church reveres him on July 15). After some years in 1038, the castle entertained two other illustrious characters Pope Benedetto IX, the emperor Corrado II, with the empress Gisla and the entire court, all guests of the Marquis Bonifazio and his wife Beatrice (daughter of the Duke of Lorena), mother and father of the famous Matilde of Canossa that for many years will decide the fate of Lucca and its Contado
XII Century
The 1° siege of the lucchesis at Castiglione - When on March 5 th 1158,  Lucca and Pisa signed for peace, their allies of Garfagnana, promised not to intervene anymore in conflicts between the two cities, but as it often happened in that time, the pacts were soon ignored. In 1168, the Castiglionesi with other nobles from Garfagnana, opposing to the powerful Lucca, helped the Pisani during the siege of the Fortress of Corvaia. the Lucchesi didn't make them wait for an answer, two years later they sent to Garfagnana, soldiers of the districts S.Gervasio and S.Pietro, to spoil the grounds in Garfagnana. After having ransacked grounds in Coreglia, Gallicano, Barga and Castelnuovo, they reached Castiglione (their true objective). After a hard siege, the Castiglionesi under the command of Veltro from Corvaia, were forced to surrender, having to bear with the anger of the Lucchesi,  Veltro was executed in the fortress and the town was completely destroyed.
XIII Century
1226 Lucca invades Garfagnana - In the long argument among Lucca and the pontiff for the possession of the earths garfagnine, Pope Onnorio III in December of 1220 to avoid the interference of the bishop of Lucca, cedette for the annual estate of six silver brands the earths and the rights of the free communes, benefits that had been him granted from the countess Matilde, to the Arcidiacono of Volterra, Coreglia, Controne, Ghivizzano, Barga, Ceserana and Castiglione “cum sint de comitatu comitisse Matildis.” These communes, headed by Castiglione, to guarantee him the liberty, in 1226 besides they made league with Pisa, hostile of Lucca, the lucchesis didn't bear this alliance and they moved war to the garfagninis, aiming at Castiglione, they sent the Podestà with 500 riders and 500 infantrymen, that burned seventy hamlets, and in February 1227, after six days of siege they took and they burned Castiglione, hanging for the feet a certain Rolando (one of the promoters of the alliance) and after one month, they succeeded in also conquering the castle of Verrucola (or Verrucchio), near Castiglione
XIV Century
Pancio de Controne - Pancio de Controne, native of controne Val of Lima, to the beginning of 300 were the physician of trust of the king and the queen English, besides covering a so tall charge, it enjoyed of a lot of influence to the court English, considering that it lent moneys to king Edoardo, being very rich and partner in business with the banker lucchese Azzolino Simonetti, when Castruccio in 1325, became gentleman of Lucca, Pancio de Controni December 12 th 1325, it did him/it pardon from Edward II, from the sentence that you/he/she had been inflicted him in England, for the killing of Ciacco Roncini, exiled also him emigrated in England. This gesture, had surely moved from the love toward its earth, love that will also manifest him in the wishes of its will, through which, he/she wanted to pour a consistent sum of money, to the university in Bologna, to found a proper university college lucchese, with the sum it was had to purchase a house, in degree to entertain 12 students, and of the immovable properties for a value of 2.500 liras bolognesi, to get an income able to maintain the 12 students. Three students had to study grammar and arts, three medicine, three lex and the last three canon law, they had to be all lucchesis and not to reside in the House no more than 7 years. This noble gesture, subordinate to moneys' restitution lent to Edward, was not realized unfortunately, for the financial disarrangement of the kingdom that brought the Florentine company of the Bards and Peruzzi to the failure in 1340, also involving Pancio that lost huge sums.
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