|The countries of Castiglione Garfagnana|
|Casone di Profecchia Cerageto Chiozza Isola Mozzanella Piano di Cerreto S.Pellegrino in Alpe Valbona Verucchia (The ancient castle)|
|Casone di Profecchia|
|The Casone of Profecchia is a modern tourist station of the Appennino (1314 s.l.ms.), that has recently begun her history (halves the XIX century), with the construction of the new road of pass, wanted by the Duke of Modena, to facilitate the commerce between the Garfagnana and Modena, until then penalized by the tortuous run and above all dangerous in winter, of the ancient medieval road, that reached the Footstep of the Roots crossing S.Pellegrino in Alpe from Castiglione Garfagnana. During the construction of the road, in that brief plain line a was built refuge, in degree to entertain the workers of the Duke, today close to this first construction they are added some others, thanks also to the realization of some sporting fittingses (ski footstep e fields from kick to 5), that inserted in a sharp pain net of paths of mountain, direct toward the peaks (Prado, Cusna, Cella....) and the most beautiful places of that line of the Appennino (Lake Saint....), every year in winter and in the summer I am destination of numerous tourists impassioned of mountain.|
|Photos: Casone di Profecchia n°1 - n°2 - n°3 - n°4 Oratorical Our Mrs. of the Mountain N°1 - N°2 - N°3 - N°4|
Cerageto is a calm suburb, been born in medieval epoch along the
ancient road of pass, that still today through the pass of the
Footstep of the Roots, it unites the Garfagnana and the province
in Modena, its origins are unknown, according to some historical
ones among which the Raffaelli, could have developed between the
XIII and XIV century, thanks to a slow depopulation of the near
village "Montepigulo" (from this high ground, the army estense
in the XVII century they bombed for a long time the castle of
Castiglione) culminated in 1377, with the transfer of her church
entitled to S.Martino in the suburb of Cerageto, church that we
find already quoted in her "Bolla" emanated in 1168, from Pope
Alessandro III from Benevento, direct to the Parish priest of
In 1453 the suburb remained under the jurisdiction of Castiglione (fortress lucchese in "Earth" estense), as many other countries of the Garfagnana it tried to escape to the dominion of Lucca rebelling itself to Castiglione, to put on under the protection of the estensi, but the lucchesi immediately suffocated the revolt destroying its fortifications, in the 1603 Cerageto he remained involved once more in the long struggle among the lucchesis and the estensi for the supremacy in Garfagnana, the general estense Bentiviglio hocked with its army in the last great siege to Castiglione, for retaliation it set on fire him.
|Photos: Cerageto n°1 - n°2 - n°3 - n°4 - n°5 - n°6 Church of S.Martino Bell tower|
suburb of Chiozza (from "Villa Claudia" or "Clodia") it rose and
it developed him in unknown epoch along one of the ancient
streets of pass of the Appennino, that stopping by S.Pellegrino
in Alpe, it connected Castiglione and the rest of the Garfagnana
With the arrival of the Lucchesis in Garfagnana (XIII century), initially Lucca set "Note" (as she will be quoted in the statute 1308 lucchese), under the jurisdiction of the "Vicaria to Perpore supra" and when this last, in the rearrangement of the "Earths" 1272 lucchesi was separated, Chiozza was inserted in the newborn "Vicaria of Castiglione".
Inside some documents lucchesi of the XIV century, we find also quoted his castle "Castrum Chioggie", small fortitude posts to watch of the ancient street of pass, that with the growth of the castle of Castiglione Garfagnana and the opening of the new road of the Footstep of the Roots (1859), it will begin to lose its strategic importance, in the list of the fortitudes to be restructured compiled by Paul Guinigi in 1401, the "castrum" you is not remembered, first signal of the beginning of its decline, that subsequently will bring him to disappear during the centuries.
Her church (n°1 - n°2) parish devoted to S.Bartolomeo, initially subject to the Pievania of Parish Fosciana and probably founded around Thousand (according to some historical ones from the Countess Matilde) it appears quoted for the first time inside her "Bolla" compiled in 1168 by Pope Alessandro III, in 1390 because of a depopulation of the suburb and the surrounding farms, she was admitted together with the actual sanctuary of S.Pellegrino (in that period Hospital with annexed a small church), to the church of S.Pietro of Castiglione.
In 1790 the church of Chiozza got from the archbishop of Lucca Filippo Sardinians, the faculty to erect the baptismal Source and the right of burial, after some decades the Duke of Modena to "Mass" to get, from Pious Pope VII it "Diocese of Ducal Mass" (February 18 th 1822), Diocese to which was attached in few years all asked her of his "Earths" of Garfagnana (the two church of Chiozza and S.Pellegrino they were annexed in 1826). The actual church of S.Bartolomeo is the result of different amplifications and restructurings happened in the XIX secolo,la construction it began in 1828 and she was completed in 1846, thanks to the generosity of the Duke of Modena Francis IV.
|Photos: Chiozza n°1 - n°2 - n°3 - n°4 - n°5 - n°6 - n°7 - n°8 - n°9 Bell tower|
small suburb of Island was born as the near Valbona along the
shores of the stream Esarulo, following the destruction of the
castle of Verucchia (castled above a high ground not too far
Isola), perpetrated by the soldiers lucchesi in 1371, definite
to punish the castles that had helped or offered shelter to the
children of Castruccio Castracane, during their attempt of
rebellion, the inhabitants of Verucchia forced to the escape,
began to shelter him near the near farms, from one of these
Island was born, today calm country dipped in the uncontaminated
nature of the Valley of the Esarulo.
Photos: Oratorical of S.Barbara
small suburb of Mozzanella, developed around him after Thousand
to a hermitage devoted to S.Salvatore and founded by their
Of this village we know few or nothing, the first tied up news to the activity of the hermitage of S.Salvatore goes up again to the XIII century, in the first Statutes of the Republic of Lucca (1272 and 1308), probably for its modest dimensions the suburb is not quoted, the lucchesi gotten the Imperial investiture on the Garfagnana (XIII century) they united him to the castle of Castiglione and from that moment it shared the fate of it,
in July of 1583 the soldiers of Villa Collemandina (castle estense), to avenge an assault of the army of the castle of castiglione, burned and they ransacked some earths of Castiglione, among which Mozzanella and in 1603 during the last war fought around the castle of Castiglione between estensi and lucchesi, Mozzanella for retaliation she was set on fire by the troops of the general estense Bentivoglio
|Photos: Mozzanella n°1 - n°2 - n°3 - n°4 - n°5 Church|
|Piano di Cerreto|
Piano di Cerreto it is a small scattered village formed him in
undetermined epoch, along the road that from Ponteardeto it
arrives to Villa Collemandina, when the lucchesi in the XIII
century they succeeded in appropriating of the Garfagnana they
inserted the suburb under the jurisdiction of the Vicaria of
Castiglione, Piano di Cerreto and the near suburb of Mozzanella,
in 1603 they were ransacked and set on fire by the troops of the
general estense Bentivoglio, busy in the last great siege of
The small church of the suburb was entitled to S.Antonio by Padova.
|S.Pellegrino in Alpe|
small suburb of S.Pellegrino in Alpe, was born around in
medieval epoch to an ancient refuge "hospitale sancti Peregrini
de alpibus "built on the homonym mountain of the Appennino
Tosco-Emiliano (1525 s.l.ms.) around the X century to offer
shelter and assistance to the pilgrims that from the north Italy
they went down toward Rome.
August 6 th 1100, in front of the notary Ugizio of Castiglione Garfagnana a certain Bonatto of the was Albizio it effected a donation of some good of his rented in "Terme Saloni" for the church of S.Pellegrino and his hospital, with the action just quoted it officially has beginning the history of the sanctuary, even if the toponomio "Terme Saloni" you is also quoted in very antecedent documents to this, the first paper that quotes the place "Terme Saloni" ("Thermal baths" = term, border of Salone) it goes up again to the X century and despite is almost illegible, it results to point out that place as border of the diocese in Modena with Tuscany.
The ancient street of communication, that transiting from "Terme Saloni" it united the valley of the Serchio (Lucca) with Modena, with her tortuous run among the peaks of the Appennino and difficult to especially cross in winter, it made to cover to the hospital of S.Pellegrino, since his existence a very important role, the awakening of the faith of that period and the growth of the cult in Lucca of the Face Saint pushed miles of pilgrims (here they could rest and to eat for three days before continuing), to cross the Appennino toward their destinations of pilgrimage, to this important flow of pilgrims they also took an interest the Emperors, in the 1187 Henry IV I give birth of Fred Barbarossa it lavished for the hospital a donation of "12 iugeris" of earth, transfer that was subsequently confirmed by Fred II in 1239 and in 1375 the vicar of the bishop of Lucca authorized the donation in his favor, over that in Tuscany in a lot of parts of Italy. With the arrival of the XIII century, it began for S.Pellegrino and for the other hospitals an economic crisis that will extend him for some centuries, bringing to the many closing of these refuges, the decrease of the pilgrims and the burst of the first epidemic of plague they made to sensitively decrease their entrances, the hospital and the church of S.Pellegrino, to face the expenses of maintenance they were forced more than once to sell the good in them possession, but unlike other refuges here the pilgrims slowly began to consider the place as a point of arrival and not anymore a place of transit, the small church that also contained the relics (set to his/her inside in unknown epoch) of S.Pellegrino founder of the hospice and S.Bianco his follower, began to be object of veneration, during the centuries thousand of believers realized to revere these two Blessed, not recognized from the church, but that they came "sanctified" from the people and from their devotion, that makes today still the Sanctuary of S.Pellegrino, one of the places of faith among the more frequented of Tuscany and of the Emilia.
To the decadence of the ancient hospital it corresponded a meaningful development of the church (above all after the ricomposizione of the two relics happened in 1666), that began to become a Sanctuary and when in 1859 a new road was built to three kilometers of distance, to connect the lucchesia with the Emilia, the flow of its believers it didn't decrease.
In 1970 the priest Don Luigi Pellegrini it picked up miles of objects and abandoned utensils in the wine cellars and in the attics, that had served to the survival of the population of those mountains for decades and it used her to prepare a museum in the ancient places of the hospital, today called The Museum Etnografico Provinciale "Don Luigi Pellegrini", the entry of the museum and the church they are found inside the "Voltone" where it passed the ancient medieval road
|Photos: S.Pellegrino in Alpe n°1 - n°2 - n°3 - n°4 - n°5 - n°6 - n°7 - n°8 Bell tower Entry sanctuary|
|S.Pellegrino in Alpe photographed by Marco Fusari|
Valbona, small suburb of the Valley of the Esarulo, began to
develop himself toward the end of the XIV century, following the
destruction of the near castle of Verucchia (1371), that forced
its inhabitants to emigrate toward the near farms, one of these
mill) sets next to the sources
of the stream
Esarulo "Small Serchio", it
gave origin to the country, today in the suburb it is still it
foresees an ancient mill, that he has seen "to turn" its
millstones for almost four centuries (1600 - 1970), before being
turned to housing use.
The destruction of the castle of Verucchia, marked also the end of its church, this pushed the people of Valbona to build an own church (XV century) devoted to S.Paolino.
|Photos: Valbona n°1 - n°2 - n°3 - n°4 Bell tower|
|Verucchia (The ancient castle)|
The castle of Verucchia, is one of the so many fortitudes of the
lucchesia she was go lost during the centuries, of its history
we know few or nothing, today the principal news in our
possession originates from the historical memories of some
historical ones (Packages, Rafaels and De Stefani), that
deepened the matter in the past attracted by the fanciful
popular legends that surrounded him.
Verucchia ancient suburb strengthened from a castle, was founded next to the suburb of Balbona, probably in epoch slow-Roman, hypothesis confirmed by the recovery on the spot, of some graven decorums above of the belonging stones to its church, similar to of the friezes (VIII sec.) present in the church of S.Pietro of attributable Careggine to the same hand.
The castle and her church "Ecclesiam S.Jacobi de Verucola" (subsequently the church will be quoted as of the SS.Cristoforos and Jacopo of Verucchia), they are quoted for the first time in a document, in it "Bolla" of 1168 expeditious to the Parish priest of Parish Fosciana from Pope Alessabdro III, during one stay of his to Benevento, subsequently in a 1194 other ecclesiastical document, regarding the possessiones of the Bishop of Lucca the castle is quoted again.
With the beginning of the XIII century the news of the castle of Verucchia intensifies him, April 27 th 1212 the Bishop of Lucca Roberto gave in feud her "Terra" of Verucchia, to Rosselmino i give birth of Rolando de' Monti (the ancient Montalfonso) belonging to the surname of the Mr. de' Monti, relatives of the Accounts of Bacciano.
In February of 1227, the lucchesi after having taken and set on fire Castiglione they besieged and they also conquered Verucchia, some months after the men and the consuls of the suburb they swore fidelity to the Bishop of Lucca, forcing himself to pour him every year 12 Moneys Lucchesi and to assist and to welcome among his boundaries the city lucchesi.
In that period the Republic of Lucca (thread-imperial) it entered struggle with the Pope (Gregorio IX) incurring in different periods in the papal excommunication, they began so in Garfagnana a series of warlike events that they upset the life of his castles, this dispute caused more than once of the attritions among the men of Verucchia and those of Castiglione, that ache bore certain privileges granted to the near castle.
The independence of the Commune of Verucchia finished with it "Bolla" emanated by Pope Innocenzo IV May 25 th 1253, with which Verucchia was inserted in the jurisdiction of Castiglione, maintaining equally the status of free Commune.
In 1356, the Antelminelli in the attempt to again appropriate of Lucca, over that to they organized some revolts in Garfagnana they set the siege to Castiglione (conquered by the pisani), informed Pisa what happened, it sent some reinforcements forcing the Antelminelli to the escape, before crossing the Appennino the children of Castruccio Castracane, they left an armed garrison in the castle of Verucchia under the command of Giovanni of Ser Bianco from Castiglione, the soldierly pisani that pursued the Antelminelli they besieged and they forced to the surrender the castle, damaging his defenses, that with the so-called peace of the Antelminelli (1371)they will be destroyed completely from the lucchesi, again reentered in possession of Verucchia, the destruction of the castle narrated in the "Cronica" of the Sercambi also decreed the end of the suburb.
her church you belong to the Chapter of the Canons of S.Martino, on which the communities of Balbona and Island depended it shared the fates of the suburb, after having been united to that of S.Pietro of Castiglione (1391), it began to lose its importance and the construction of the church of Balbona (XV century) it will definitely decree its end, after having been abandoned, during the centuries it will go completely destroyed (as the whole rest).